Suffolk County Community College

 

PSY-210  Lifespan Psychology                                            Prof. R. Morse                                      

 Berger 8th Ed. Ch 1 Practice Questions

The Multiple Choice questions that follow are taken from a Test Bank developed by Kathleen Stassen Berger, the author of our textbook.  The answers to these questions can be obtained by sending me an e-mail with your proposed answer key.  Some of these questions will appear on your Final exam.

 

1.

Why is replication of a study necessary?

 

A)

to answer any questions that were not addressed in the previous study

 

B)

to give more researchers more jobs

 

C)

it is needed before the scientific community accepts the study's conclusions

 

D)

to see if it is possible to do the same study two times

  

2.

Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the:

 

A)

social-context debate.

 

B)

genetic-engineering debate.

 

C)

social-engineering debate.

 

D)

nature-nurture debate.

  

3.

Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children are emphasizing the importance of:

 

A)

nurture.

 

B)

the zone of proximal development.

 

C)

nature.

 

D)

operant conditioning.

  

4.

Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next?

 

A)

continuity

 

B)

systems

 

C)

discontinuity

 

D)

critical period

  

5.

Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear quite different from those that came before?

 

A)

continuity

 

B)

systems

 

C)

discontinuity

 

D)

critical period

  

6.

You and your high school classmates are part of the same:

 

A)

social construction.

 

B)

context.

 

C)

socioeconomic status.

 

D)

cohort.

  

7.

The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances.

 

A)

educational

 

B)

socioeconomic

 

C)

historical

 

D)

familial

  

8.

Pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. According to the multicontextual characteristic of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to:

 

A)

a cohort effect.

 

B)

fond memories of high school.

 

C)

her success beyond high school.

 

D)

social context.

  

9.

An individual's socioeconomic status includes:

 

A)

ethnicity.

 

B)

level of education.

 

C)

political beliefs.

 

D)

religion.

  

10.

In many cultures around the world, people believe that it is the husband's responsibility to earn the majority of the income for the family. This is an example of:

 

A)

an ethnic belief.

 

B)

a racial bias.

 

C)

a social construction.

 

D)

heritage.

  

11.

For ease of study, human development is often divided into which three domains?

 

A)

past, present, future

 

B)

biological, social, cognitive

 

C)

childhood, adolescence, adulthood

 

D)

multicultural, multidisciplinary, multicontextual

  

12.

If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:

 

A)

the case-study method.

 

B)

a controlled experiment.

 

C)

cross-sectional research.

 

D)

scientific observation.

  

13.

If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could:

 

A)

give half of them candy and see how many would share.

 

B)

mingle with the children and ask them about sharing.

 

C)

bring a small group into her laboratory and observe them eating.

 

D)

watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom.

  

14.

Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research?

 

A)

It must be done in a laboratory setting.

 

B)

It cannot be generalized to other populations.

 

C)

It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships.

 

D)

It violates the ethical standards of research.

  

15.

When a researcher is interested in the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is:

 

A)

the case study.

 

B)

scientific observation.

 

C)

the experiment.

 

D)

the survey.

  

16.

Which of the following is the best definition of “dependent variable”?

 

A)

It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable.

 

B)

It is any unmeasured variable that is not controlled within the context of the experiment.

 

C)

It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

 

D)

It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

  

17.

Which of the following is the best definition of “independent variable”?

 

A)

It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable.

 

B)

It is any unmeasured variable not controlled within the experiment.

 

C)

It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

 

D)

It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

  

18.

A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:

 

A)

a naturalistic observation.

 

B)

an experiment.

 

C)

a case study.

 

D)

longitudinal research.

  

19.

A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. In this study, the comparison group was the children:

 

A)

who watched the violent film.

 

B)

who watched the nonviolent film.

 

C)

whose behavior was the inspiration for the study.

 

D)

who watch at least four hours of television per day.

  

20.

A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:

 

A)

many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.

 

B)

many people answer honestly but the interviewers do not believe them.

 

C)

even a representative sample of people will be biased.

 

D)

when asked the same questions again, responses differ.

  

21.

To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use:

 

A)

a laboratory experiment.

 

B)

a survey.

 

C)

naturalistic observation.

 

D)

the case-study method.

  

22.

In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:

 

A)

sex.

 

B)

social class.

 

C)

age.

 

D)

political affiliation.

  

23.

Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?

 

A)

There are too many variables to keep track of.

 

B)

Longitudinal changes are not easily measured.

 

C)

Cohort differences—that is, differences in background variables.

 

D)

Cultural differences.

  

24.

If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:

 

A)

longitudinal research.

 

B)

cross-sectional research.

 

C)

cross-sequential research.

 

D)

a replication study.

  

25.

Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to:

 

A)

disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period.

 

B)

disentangle differences in groups of individuals who are of different ages.

 

C)

reduce sample bias.

 

D)

conduct research over only a small time period.

 

26.

A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?

 

A)

experimental

 

B)

correlational

 

C)

observational

 

D)

descriptive

  

27.

The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is:

 

A)

positive.

 

B)

negative.

 

C)

zero.

 

D)

causal.

  

28.

After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is:

 

A)

positive.

 

B)

negative.

 

C)

zero.

 

D)

causal.

  

29.

Which of the following numbers indicates the weakest correlational relationship?

 

A)

.90

 

B)

–.76

 

C)

.05

 

D)

–.50

  

30.

Which of the following numbers indicates the strongest correlational relationship?

 

A)

–.98

 

B)

.85

 

C)

–.40

 

D)

.32

  

31.

Quantitative information always involves:

 

A)

data on subjects.

 

B)

obtaining much information from research participants.

 

C)

numerical data.

 

D)

studying people over a period of time.

  

32.

Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worker. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:

 

A)

policies and procedures.

 

B)

code of ethics.

 

C)

participant rules.

 

D)

conditions of liability.

  

33.

When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?

 

A)

the children's birth records

 

B)

the names of the children's biological parents if the children are adopted

 

C)

the parents' informed consent

 

D)

the names of the children's peers