Practice Test Questions for Midterm Examination: Hockenbury and Hockenbury (6th Ed.)                            Chapter 11: Personality

The following questions have been taken from the Test Bank for the textbook being used in our course.  The questions from this chapter that will appear on the Final examination and the final examination will be selected from those displayed below. To receive the answer key for these questions, e-mail me your proposed answers to the questions below; I will respond to your e-mail with the key containing the correct answers.

 

 

1.

In psychology, the term personality refers to:

 

A)

a person's skill in making others feel good about himself or herself.

 

B)

the socially desirable characteristics that a person typically displays.

 

C)

the way people perceive a particular person.

 

D)

an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

 

 

2.

Assume that “friendliness” is a genetically influenced trait. Which of the following groups would you expect to be MOST similar on the trait of friendliness?

 

A)

fraternal twins

 

B)

biological siblings

 

C)

parents and their firstborn child

 

D)

identical twins

 

 

3.

According to Carl Rogers's theory of personality, a person is highly motivated to act in a way that is consistent with:

 

A)

his or her sense of self-efficacy in a particular situation.

 

B)

the behavior of others.

 

C)

his or her source traits.

 

D)

his or her self-concept.

 

 

4.

Four-year-old Brooke throws a tantrum when her parents want to leave the playground and go home. Instead of punishing her, Brooke's parents patiently and lovingly try to teach Brooke a more acceptable way of coping with disappointment and frustration. Using Carl Rogers's terminology, Brooke is experiencing a high degree of _____ from her parents.

 

A)

conditional positive regard

 

B)

reciprocal determinism

 

C)

unconditional positive regard

 

D)

incongruence

 

 

5.

Which of the following statements reflects Freud's view of the superego?

 

A)

It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality.

 

B)

It is “a cauldron of seething excitement” that wants immediate gratification of instinctual drives and urges.

 

C)

It is the component of personality that operates on the reality principle.

 

D)

It is the source of the life instinct and death instinct.

 

 

6.

_____ had a strong influence on Freud's early career, introducing him to the use of hypnosis in treating patients with psychological problems.

 

A)

Alfred Adler

 

B)

Joseph Breuer

 

C)

Hermann Rorschach

 

D)

Carl Jung

 

 

7.

According to Albert Bandura, what is the best way to strengthen your sense of self-efficacy in a particular realm of behavior?

 

A)

through unconditional positive regard and a congruent self-concept

 

B)

through observational learning and mastery experiences

 

C)

by adopting the ego defense mechanisms of sublimation and displacement

 

D)

by developing a more positive “possible self” in that realm of behavior

 

 

8.

In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the disguised, symbolic meaning of dreams is called the:

 

A)

manifest content.

 

B)

projected content.

 

C)

latent content.

 

D)

cathartic content.

 

 

9.

According to Table 11.5, Carl Jung proposed:

 

A)

the idea of the collective unconscious, archetypes, and psychological wholeness.

 

B)

that behavior is motivated by a hierarchy of needs and striving for self-actualization.

 

C)

the idea of the self-concept, psychological growth, free will, and the inherent goodness of humans.

 

D)

that individuals use three patterns of behavior to defend against basic anxiety, that parent-child relationships are important in personality development, and that males suffer from womb envy.

 

 

10.

When Carol was 8 years old, her mother died. As an adult, Carol has no memories of attending her mother's funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud's theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this upsetting event?

 

A)

undoing

 

B)

projection

 

C)

displacement

 

D)

repression

 

 

11.

Rhonda feels confident in her ability to dance the part of Clara in The Nutcracker ballet. Albert Bandura would say that Rhonda is showing a high level of:

 

A)

displacement.

 

B)

unconditional positive regard.

 

C)

self-efficacy.

 

D)

sublimation.

 

 

12.

Ethan and Holly were debating what would happen to society if the government collapsed and the military and police were disbanded. Holly felt strongly that although things would probably be chaotic at first, people would very naturally strive to help each other in constructive ways. Holly's views are most similar to those of:

 

A)

Sigmund Freud.

 

B)

Carl Rogers.

 

C)

Alfred Adler.

 

D)

Carl Jung.

 

 

13.

Carl Rogers's theory of personality and humanistic psychology has been criticized for:

 

A)

being naively optimistic about human nature.

 

B)

being based solely on experimental evidence.

 

C)

having no practical application.

 

D)

overemphasizing the role of genetics in personality development.

 

 

14.

The two basic types of personality tests are:

 

A)

aptitude and achievement tests.

 

B)

personality type tests and self-report inventories.

 

C)

personality trait inventories and personality type inventories.

 

D)

projective tests and self-report inventories.

 

 

15.

Alyssa is a quiet, rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She would rather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. In terms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high on the trait of:

 

A)

repression.

 

B)

psychoticism.

 

C)

introversion.

 

D)

extraversion.

 

 

16.

Freud used the term _____ to refer specifically to sexual energy or motivation.

 

A)

Thanatos

 

B)

libido

 

C)

Eros

 

D)

sublimination

 

 

17.

Cross-cultural research on traits has found that:

 

A)

people in a variety of cultures describe personality in terms of the same basic traits that are identified by the five-factor model.

 

B)

every culture has its own unique way of describing the basic structure of personality.

 

C)

collectivistic cultures describe the structure of personality in a very different way than individualistic cultures.

 

D)

Asian societies tend to describe personality in terms of self-orientation and other-orientation, rather than in terms of individual characteristics.

 

 

18.

Humanistic psychology is a view of personality that emphasizes:

 

A)

reciprocal determinism.

 

B)

the study of psychologically healthy people.

 

C)

the importance of genetic factors in personality.

 

D)

unconscious determinants of personality and behavior.

 

 

19.

Freud's famous technique of free association involved patients:

 

A)

spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they came to mind.

 

B)

looking at inkblots and interpreting what they saw.

 

C)

making up a story about an ambiguous picture.

 

D)

instantly responding to each of fifty words that Freud read to them.

 

 

20.

Regarding projective tests, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

A)

The scoring of projective tests is very subjective.

 

B)

Projective tests often produce inconsistent results.

 

C)

Projective tests are extremely accurate in predicting future behavior.

 

D)

When they administer a projective test, different examiners may arrive at different conclusions about the same individual.

 

 

21.

Dr. Wilkerson has given her new patient several psychological tests. What approach should Dr. Wilkerson take in interpreting the test results?

 

A)

She should assume that the tests tell her everything she needs to know about her new patient.

 

B)

She should assume that the test results are likely to contradict her patient's self-concept.

 

C)

She should combine her knowledge of the test results with behavioral observations and information from other sources, including the patient himself.

 

D)

She should assume that the Rorschach and TAT tests will provide the most reliable insights into her patient's personality traits.

 

 

22.

The prologue to Chapter 11 described the story of the twins, Julian and Kenneth. Using Freud's terminology, which component of personality was dominating Julian's behavior when he tried to rob the drugstore?

 

A)

the ego

 

B)

the id

 

C)

the superego

 

D)

Eros

 

 

23.

Irrational and chaotic is to the _____ as rational and reality-oriented is to the _____.

 

A)

id; ego

 

B)

id; superego

 

C)

ego; superego

 

D)

superego; id

 

 

24.

After Lauren broke up with him, Evan told his friends how happy he was that Lauren was out of his life. Nevertheless, Evan keeps thinking of things that he left at Lauren's apartment and calls her or stops by her apartment several times a week. Each time he sees her, he is insulting and unpleasant and tells Lauren that he hopes he never sees her again. Evan's behavior is best explained by which of the following ego defense mechanisms?

 

A)

reaction formation

 

B)

identification

 

C)

displacement

 

D)

undoing

 

 

25.

Angela remembers a dream in which she boarded a train that entered a dark tunnel. According to Sigmund Freud's theory, the dream images that Angela remembers, such as the train and the tunnel, are called the _____ content.

 

A)

manifest

 

B)

repressed

 

C)

latent

 

D)

sublimated

 

 

26.

Shelly was assessed at a career counseling service using a self-report test that determined her personality type was introverted, sensing, feeling, and perceiving (ISFP). Shelly has been given the:

 

A)

Rorschach Inkblot test.

 

B)

Thematic Apperception Test.

 

C)

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

 

D)

California Personality Inventory.

 

 

27.

The type of personality test that involves people's responding to specific questions and comparing the responses to established norms collected on large groups of people is called a:

 

A)

projective test.

 

B)

self-report inventory.

 

C)

personality type indicator test.

 

D)

graphology test.

 

 

28.

According to your textbook, the most widely used self-report inventory is the:

 

A)

Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT.

 

B)

Rorschach Inkblot Test.

 

C)

California Personality Inventory (CPI).

 

D)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI.

 

 

29.

Dr. Kildare gave his patient a lengthy test that involved more than 500 questions. The patient was instructed to respond to each statement with either “True,” “False,” or “Cannot say.” Dr. Kildare told his patient that the test would be scored by computer, but that he would analyze the results and discuss them with her. Most likely, Dr. Kildare's patient has taken which personality test?

 

A)

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI

 

B)

the Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT

 

C)

the Rorschach Inkblot Test

 

D)

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or MBTI

 

 

30.

Dr. Duran showed his patient Adam a series of cards, each of which depicted an ambiguous scene, such as two people talking on a park bench, or an older woman looking over a young woman's shoulder. Dr. Duran asked Adam to tell him a story about the picture. What test is Dr. Duran using?

 

A)

the Thematic Apperception Test

 

B)

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

 

C)

the Rorschach Inkblot Test

 

D)

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory