Practice Test Questions for Midterm Examination: Hockenbury and Hockenbury (6th Ed.)                            Chapter 1:  Introduction and Research Methods

 

The following questions have been taken from the Test Bank for the textbook being used in our course.  The questions from this chapter that will appear on the midterm examination and the final examination will be selected from those displayed below.

 

 

1.

What process is used to make sure that survey participants are a representative sample of the population that is being studied?

 

A)

double-blind selection

 

B)

single-blind selection

 

C)

random selection

 

D)

using only those participants who volunteer to be part of the study

 

 

2.

Dr. Professor, who follows the _____ perspective, conceptualizes human thinking, memory, and perception in terms of an information-processing model.

 

A)

positive psychology

 

B)

behavioral

 

C)

biological

 

D)

cognitive

 

 

3.

In an experiment, the factor that is observed and measured for change and is thought to be influenced by the independent variable is called the:

 

A)

extraneous variable.

 

B)

treatment variable.

 

C)

dependent variable.

 

D)

confounding variable.

 

 

4.

Random assignment refers to a procedure that:

 

A)

ensures that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental conditions or groups.

 

B)

helps psychologists determine which factors should be defined as dependent variables.

 

C)

is used in statistics to determine whether results are random or simply due to chance.

 

D)

randomly assigns different procedures to different researchers in order to minimize experimenter bias.

 

 

5.

A correlation coefficient is a(n):

 

A)

numerical indicator of the strength and direction of a relationship between two factors.

 

B)

independent variable that is used in a correlational study.

 

C)

numerical indicator of the statistical significance of the findings in a particular research study.

 

D)

index of the practical rather than the statistical significance of research findings.

 

 

6.

In a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, participants drank a bottle of tasteless water containing 100, 50, or 0 milligrams of caffeine. The participants assigned to the group that got bottled water with no caffeine represented the _____ in this study.

 

A)

dependent variable

 

B)

placebo control group

 

C)

meta-analysis

 

D)

experimental group

 

 

7.

You are a subject in an experiment you are told: “Look at this apple very carefully and tell me your exact sensations and feelings as you experience them.” The experimenter in this study probably believes in what school of psychology?

 

A)

psychoanalysis

 

B)

functionalism

 

C)

structuralism

 

D)

behaviorism

 

 

8.

Under the American Psychological Association's ethical code for psychologists, psychological researchers:

 

A)

must respect the dignity and welfare of the research participants.

 

B)

must consult each participant's family doctor.

 

C)

are never allowed to deceive research participants.

 

D)

can identify research participants by name, but only in professional journals.

 

 

9.

Positive correlation is to negative correlation as _____ is to _____.

 

A)

correlation coefficient; correlational study

 

B)

1.00; 0.00

 

C)

variables moving in the same direction; variables moving in opposite directions

 

D)

variables moving in opposite directions; variables moving in the same direction

 

 

10.

Lynn has just received a research grant to study the effect of downsizing on morale at a large computer company. Lynn is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.

 

A)

cross-cultural

 

B)

biological

 

C)

industrial/organizational

 

D)

personality

 

 

11.

Based on a friend's suggestion, Nicole moved her bed so that its head pointed to magnetic north. Nicole's friend told her this would help align the electrical impulses in her body and improve blood circulation to her brain. After sleeping this way for a week, Nicole found it easier to concentrate while studying. Her test scores also seemed to improve. Even after learning that scientific evidence does not support this notion, Nicole believed that sleeping with her head pointed to the magnetic north had improved her performance. Nicole's perception is an example of a:

 

A)

pseudoscientific belief.

 

B)

negative correlation.

 

C)

demand characteristic.

 

D)

statistically significant effect.

 

 

12.

“What are the most basic units or structures of consciousness?” This is a question that would most likely be of interest to a follower of:

 

A)

humanism.

 

B)

behaviorism.

 

C)

functionalism.

 

D)

structuralism.

 

 

13.

Approximately _____ of the world's population lives in _____.

 

A)

two-thirds; collectivistic cultures

 

B)

three-fourths; individualistic cultures

 

C)

half; China

 

D)

half; North America

 

 

14.

The specialty area of psychology that helps people of all ages adjust, adapt, and cope with personal and interpersonal problems in such diverse areas as relationships, work, education, marriage, child rearing, and aging is called:

 

A)

health psychology.

 

B)

counseling psychology.

 

C)

rehabilitation psychology.

 

D)

forensic psychology.

 

 

15.

Dr. Jackson is interested in how stress affects the brain and examines PET scans of individuals before and after stressful situations. Dr. Jackson's approach is part of the  _____ perspective.

 

A)

behavioral

 

B)

cross-cultural

 

C)

biological

 

D)

psychodynamic

 

 

16.

In an experiment investigating the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves concentration and memory, all the participants had an equal chance of being assigned to any of the three conditions in the study. The researchers have used _____ to minimize the possibility of bias when assigning participants to the different groups.

 

A)

the practice effect

 

B)

random assignment

 

C)

the single-blind technique

 

D)

the double-blind technique

 

 

17.

Case studies:

 

A)

are commonly used by clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals to develop a complete profile of a psychotherapy client.

 

B)

were popular when psychology was first founded but are almost never used today.

 

C)

are not considered to be a legitimate form of scientific evidence.

 

D)

are the main scientific tool used to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.

 

 

18.

The _____ perspective of psychology emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences and early life experiences in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior.

 

A)

cognitive

 

B)

positive psychology

 

C)

humanistic

 

D)

psychodynamic

 

 

19.

In psychological research, the practice effect refers to:

 

A)

the likelihood that researchers will improve in their interviewing techniques over time.

 

B)

a change in performance of a task that is the result of mere repetition of a task.

 

C)

the fact that skills that are well-practiced are more likely to decline when they are repeatedly measured.

 

D)

a well-known technique for improving the memory of nonsense syllables or other meaningless stimuli.

 

 

20.

Dr. McNair has been studying the effects of different levels of estrogen hormones on mating behaviors in male and female hamsters. Dr. McNair is most likely a _____ psychologist.

 

A)

cognitive

 

B)

developmental

 

C)

biological

 

D)

clinical

 

 

21.

After many media reports of aggressive behavior by parents and other adult spectators in the stands at Canadian youth hockey games, psychologists systematically recorded the comments of adult spectators at youth hockey games in a large Canadian city. They found that almost two-thirds of the comments were directed at the players rather than the referees, and that most comments were positive and encouraging rather than negative or critical. The psychologists used a descriptive research method called _____.

 

A)

a case study

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

survey research

 

D)

the representative sample

 

 

22.

A friend tells you that putting a small cardboard pyramid under your bed as you sleep at night will enhance your “psychic energy” and give you “inner peace.” Pseudoscientific claims like this:

 

A)

are irrefutable or nonfalsifiable because they use vague terms like “psychic energy” and “inner peace” and cannot be disproved or tested in any meaningful way.

 

B)

can be tested only using brain-imaging technology such as PET scans, MRI, or fMRI.

 

C)

can be tested only with natural experiments.

 

D)

would be unethical to test because the researcher would have to use a double-blind study.

 

 

23.

A meta-analysis is most useful when:

 

A)

there are not enough participants in an experiment.

 

B)

a particular issue has generated a large number of studies, some of which have produced weak or contradictory results.

 

C)

the statistical analysis indicates that the results are statistically significant but the hypothesis is not supported.

 

D)

the experiment has never been replicated.

 

 

24.

Which of the following titles would most likely be found in a research journal for social psychology?

 

A)

“Increased levels of the male hormone, testosterone, causes increased aggressive behavior in laboratory rats”

 

B)

“How the presence of other people affects helping behavior in public situations”

 

C)

“Decreases in intellectual functioning can be reversed through increased mental activities in the older adult”

 

D)

“Motivational effects of stress”

 

 

25.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):

 

A)

combines the ability to produce a detailed image of the brain's structures with the capacity to track the brain's activity and functioning.

 

B)

involves injecting the participant with a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, that is tracked as it is used in different brain regions.

 

C)

is limited because the participant cannot be repeatedly scanned.

 

D)

produces brain images that are not as sharp as and are much less detailed than those produced by PET scans.

 

 

26.

The development of techniques such as PET, MRI, and fMRI scans to study the structure and function of the brain has enhanced the work of psychologists in the _____ perspective of psychology.

 

A)

behavioral

 

B)

biological

 

C)

psychodynamic

 

D)

humanistic

 

 

27.

The results of Crum and Langer's hotel experiment:

 

A)

were contradicted by the results of correlational research based on a student survey about health, diet, and exercise and personality measures.

 

B)

had little impact because the statistical analysis was flawed.

 

C)

provided additional support for the idea that people's beliefs and expectations can have a powerful influence.

 

D)

were discounted because the evidence was purely correlational.

 

 

28.

The specialty area in psychology that applies psychological principles and techniques to legal issues, such as the assessment and treatment of offenders, mental competency to stand trial, child custody, jury selection, and eyewitness testimony is called psychology.

 

A)

clinical

 

B)

rehabilitation

 

C)

counseling

 

D)

forensic

 

 

29.

Which of the following statements about clinical psychologists is FALSE?

 

A)

They have extensive training in evaluating and diagnosing psychological disorders, psychotherapy techniques, and psychological testing.

 

B)

They study the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of different types of behavioral and emotional disorders, such as anxiety, mood, or eating disorders.

 

C)

Their training leads to a doctorate in clinical psychology, either a Ph.D. or a Psy.D.

 

D)

As a regular part of their training, they are supervised in prescribing medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other medical procedures.

 

 

30.

Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological processes are subject to the principle of:

 

A)

social loafing.

 

B)

unconscious conflict.

 

C)

collectivism.

 

D)

natural selection.

 

 

NAMES Only From
Chapter 1

 

 

1.

Which famous Greek philosopher wrote extensively about psychological topics such as sleep and dreaming, the senses, memory, and learning?

 

A)

Aristotle

 

B)

Descartes

 

C)

Calkins

 

D)

James

 

 

2.

French philosopher René Descartes:

 

A)

strongly opposed the idea of establishing psychology as a separate science.

 

B)

promoted a doctrine called interactive dualism.

 

C)

was the first of Wundt's students to receive a doctorate in psychology.

 

D)

was a philosopher who wrote extensively about topics such as sleep, dreams, the senses, and memory more than 2,000 years ago.

 

 

3.

Wilhelm Wundt outlined the connections between physiology and psychology in:

 

A)

his famous textbook titled Principles of Physiological Psychology, published in 1874.

 

B)

a series of famous lectures at Clark University in 1909.

 

C)

a public debate with William James at Harvard University.

 

D)

his famous book Principles of Psychology, published in two volumes in 1890.

 

 

4.

_____ opened the first psychology laboratory in _____.

 

A)

Sigmund Freud; 1904

 

B)

William James; 1890

 

C)

Edward B. Titchener; 1892

 

D)

Wilhelm Wundt; 1879

 

 

5.

More so than any other male psychologist at that time, _____ helped female students attain their psychology doctorate in his graduate program at Cornell University.

 

A)

G. Stanley Hall

 

B)

Francis C. Sumner

 

C)

William James

 

D)

Edward Titchener

 

 

6.

_____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____.

 

A)

Charles Darwin; 1859

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn; 1908

 

C)

William James; 1890

 

D)

Sigmund Freud; 1909

 

 

7.

Which of the following people played a key role in establishing psychology as a scientific discipline in the United States?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

Sigmund Freud

 

C)

B. F. Skinner

 

D)

Abraham Maslow

 

 

8.

It took more than ten years to write and was 1,400 pages long when it was published. Who wrote the landmark textbook Principles of Psychology?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn

 

C)

B. F. Skinner

 

D)

William James

 

 

9.

Who was the first person to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States?

 

A)

B. F. Skinner

 

B)

John B. Watson

 

C)

Francis C. Sumner

 

D)

G. Stanley Hall

 

 

10.

Which of the following psychologists founded the American Psychological Association and established the first journal devoted to psychology in the United States?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

G. Stanley Hall

 

C)

John B. Watson

 

D)

Mary Whiton Calkins

 

 

11.

The first U.S. woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology was:

 

A)

Mary Whiton Calkins.

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

C)

Renee Descartes.

 

D)

Francis C. Sumner.

 

 

12.

The first African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States was:

 

A)

Francis C. Sumner.

 

B)

Abraham Maslow.

 

C)

G. Stanley Hall.

 

D)

Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

 

13.

The founder of psychoanalysis was:

 

A)

American psychologist B. F. Skinner.

 

B)

American psychologist Carl Rogers.

 

C)

German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt.

 

D)

Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.

 

 

14.

Who would have been most likely to say: “You behave the way you do because of unconscious reasons, not reasons in your consciousness”?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

John B. Watson

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

G. Stanley Hall

 

 

15.

After attending a series of lectures by Freud at Clark University in 1909, _____ described Freud as “a man obsessed with fixed ideas.”

 

A)

Francis C. Sumner

 

B)

G. Stanley Hall

 

C)

Mary Whiton Calkins

 

D)

William James

 

 

16.

Sigmund Freud:

 

A)

refused to visit the United States but lectured extensively at universities throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.

 

B)

trained Carl Rogers in the use of scientific methods to study the unconscious mind.

 

C)

promoted the importance of the nature versus nurture issue and interactive dualism in understanding human behavior.

 

D)

delivered a series of lectures on psychoanalysis at Clark University in Massachusetts in the early 1900s.

 

 

17.

The founder of behaviorism was:

 

A)

G. Stanley Hall.

 

B)

William James.

 

C)

John Watson.

 

D)

Carl Rogers.

 

 

18.

Which of the following people strongly objected to structuralism's use of introspection and its emphasis on conscious mental processes?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Edward B. Titchener

 

C)

Margaret Floy Washburn

 

D)

Sigmund Freud

 

 

19.

Who conditioned dogs to reflexively salivate to the sound of a bell rather than food?

 

A)

American psychologist Margaret Washburn

 

B)

Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov

 

C)

Austrian physician Sigmund Freud

 

D)

American psychologist B. F. Skinner

 

 

20.

Key figures in the development of behaviorism include:

 

A)

Wundt, Titchener, and James.

 

B)

James, Watson, and Calkins.

 

C)

Maslow, Freud, and Rogers.

 

D)

Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner.

 

 

21.

Two key figures in the development of humanistic psychology include:

 

A)

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

 

B)

Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner.

 

C)

Mary Calkins and Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

D)

John Watson and B. F. Skinner.

 

 

22.

Which of the following people developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Abraham Maslow

 

C)

G. Stanley Hall

 

D)

Ivan Pavlov

 

 

23.

Which of the following people emphasized conscious experiences and each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction?

 

A)

Carl Rogers

 

B)

B. F. Skinner

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

John B. Watson

 

 

 

 

 

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