Practice Test Questions for Midterm Examination: Hockenbury and Hockenbury (6th Ed.)                            Chapter 1:  Introduction and Research Methods

 

The following questions have been taken from the Test Bank for the textbook being used in our course.  The questions from this chapter that will appear on the midterm examination and the final examination will be selected from those displayed below.

 

 

1.

What process is used to make sure that survey participants are a representative sample of the population that is being studied?

 

A)

double-blind selection

 

B)

single-blind selection

 

C)

random selection

 

D)

using only those participants who volunteer to be part of the study

 

 

2.

Dr. Professor, who follows the _____ perspective, conceptualizes human thinking, memory, and perception in terms of an information-processing model.

 

A)

positive psychology

 

B)

behavioral

 

C)

biological

 

D)

cognitive

 

 

3.

In an experiment, the factor that is observed and measured for change and is thought to be influenced by the independent variable is called the:

 

A)

extraneous variable.

 

B)

treatment variable.

 

C)

dependent variable.

 

D)

confounding variable.

 

 

4.

Random assignment refers to a procedure that:

 

A)

ensures that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental conditions or groups.

 

B)

helps psychologists determine which factors should be defined as dependent variables.

 

C)

is used in statistics to determine whether results are random or simply due to chance.

 

D)

randomly assigns different procedures to different researchers in order to minimize experimenter bias.

 

 

5.

A correlation coefficient is a(n):

 

A)

numerical indicator of the strength and direction of a relationship between two factors.

 

B)

independent variable that is used in a correlational study.

 

C)

numerical indicator of the statistical significance of the findings in a particular research study.

 

D)

index of the practical rather than the statistical significance of research findings.

 

 

6.

In a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, participants drank a bottle of tasteless water containing 100, 50, or 0 milligrams of caffeine. The participants assigned to the group that got bottled water with no caffeine represented the _____ in this study.

 

A)

dependent variable

 

B)

placebo control group

 

C)

meta-analysis

 

D)

experimental group

 

 

7.

You are a subject in an experiment you are told: “Look at this apple very carefully and tell me your exact sensations and feelings as you experience them.” The experimenter in this study probably believes in what school of psychology?

 

A)

psychoanalysis

 

B)

functionalism

 

C)

structuralism

 

D)

behaviorism

 

 

8.

Under the American Psychological Association's ethical code for psychologists, psychological researchers:

 

A)

must respect the dignity and welfare of the research participants.

 

B)

must consult each participant's family doctor.

 

C)

are never allowed to deceive research participants.

 

D)

can identify research participants by name, but only in professional journals.

 

 

9.

Positive correlation is to negative correlation as _____ is to _____.

 

A)

correlation coefficient; correlational study

 

B)

1.00; 0.00

 

C)

variables moving in the same direction; variables moving in opposite directions

 

D)

variables moving in opposite directions; variables moving in the same direction

 

 

10.

Lynn has just received a research grant to study the effect of downsizing on morale at a large computer company. Lynn is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.

 

A)

cross-cultural

 

B)

biological

 

C)

industrial/organizational

 

D)

personality

 

 

11.

Based on a friend's suggestion, Nicole moved her bed so that its head pointed to magnetic north. Nicole's friend told her this would help align the electrical impulses in her body and improve blood circulation to her brain. After sleeping this way for a week, Nicole found it easier to concentrate while studying. Her test scores also seemed to improve. Even after learning that scientific evidence does not support this notion, Nicole believed that sleeping with her head pointed to the magnetic north had improved her performance. Nicole's perception is an example of a:

 

A)

pseudoscientific belief.

 

B)

negative correlation.

 

C)

demand characteristic.

 

D)

statistically significant effect.

 

 

12.

“What are the most basic units or structures of consciousness?” This is a question that would most likely be of interest to a follower of:

 

A)

humanism.

 

B)

behaviorism.

 

C)

functionalism.

 

D)

structuralism.

 

 

13.

Approximately _____ of the world's population lives in _____.

 

A)

two-thirds; collectivistic cultures

 

B)

three-fourths; individualistic cultures

 

C)

half; China

 

D)

half; North America

 

 

14.

The specialty area of psychology that helps people of all ages adjust, adapt, and cope with personal and interpersonal problems in such diverse areas as relationships, work, education, marriage, child rearing, and aging is called:

 

A)

health psychology.

 

B)

counseling psychology.

 

C)

rehabilitation psychology.

 

D)

forensic psychology.

 

 

15.

Dr. Jackson is interested in how stress affects the brain and examines PET scans of individuals before and after stressful situations. Dr. Jackson's approach is part of the  _____ perspective.

 

A)

behavioral

 

B)

cross-cultural

 

C)

biological

 

D)

psychodynamic

 

 

16.

In an experiment investigating the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves concentration and memory, all the participants had an equal chance of being assigned to any of the three conditions in the study. The researchers have used _____ to minimize the possibility of bias when assigning participants to the different groups.

 

A)

the practice effect

 

B)

random assignment

 

C)

the single-blind technique

 

D)

the double-blind technique

 

 

17.

Case studies:

 

A)

are commonly used by clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals to develop a complete profile of a psychotherapy client.

 

B)

were popular when psychology was first founded but are almost never used today.

 

C)

are not considered to be a legitimate form of scientific evidence.

 

D)

are the main scientific tool used to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.

 

 

18.

The _____ perspective of psychology emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences and early life experiences in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior.

 

A)

cognitive

 

B)

positive psychology

 

C)

humanistic

 

D)

psychodynamic

 

 

19.

In psychological research, the practice effect refers to:

 

A)

the likelihood that researchers will improve in their interviewing techniques over time.

 

B)

a change in performance of a task that is the result of mere repetition of a task.

 

C)

the fact that skills that are well-practiced are more likely to decline when they are repeatedly measured.

 

D)

a well-known technique for improving the memory of nonsense syllables or other meaningless stimuli.

 

 

20.

Dr. McNair has been studying the effects of different levels of estrogen hormones on mating behaviors in male and female hamsters. Dr. McNair is most likely a _____ psychologist.

 

A)

cognitive

 

B)

developmental

 

C)

biological

 

D)

clinical

 

 

21.

After many media reports of aggressive behavior by parents and other adult spectators in the stands at Canadian youth hockey games, psychologists systematically recorded the comments of adult spectators at youth hockey games in a large Canadian city. They found that almost two-thirds of the comments were directed at the players rather than the referees, and that most comments were positive and encouraging rather than negative or critical. The psychologists used a descriptive research method called _____.

 

A)

a case study

 

B)

naturalistic observation

 

C)

survey research

 

D)

the representative sample

 

 

22.

A friend tells you that putting a small cardboard pyramid under your bed as you sleep at night will enhance your “psychic energy” and give you “inner peace.” Pseudoscientific claims like this:

 

A)

are irrefutable or nonfalsifiable because they use vague terms like “psychic energy” and “inner peace” and cannot be disproved or tested in any meaningful way.

 

B)

can be tested only using brain-imaging technology such as PET scans, MRI, or fMRI.

 

C)

can be tested only with natural experiments.

 

D)

would be unethical to test because the researcher would have to use a double-blind study.

 

 

23.

A meta-analysis is most useful when:

 

A)

there are not enough participants in an experiment.

 

B)

a particular issue has generated a large number of studies, some of which have produced weak or contradictory results.

 

C)

the statistical analysis indicates that the results are statistically significant but the hypothesis is not supported.

 

D)

the experiment has never been replicated.

 

 

24.

Which of the following titles would most likely be found in a research journal for social psychology?

 

A)

“Increased levels of the male hormone, testosterone, causes increased aggressive behavior in laboratory rats”

 

B)

“How the presence of other people affects helping behavior in public situations”

 

C)

“Decreases in intellectual functioning can be reversed through increased mental activities in the older adult”

 

D)

“Motivational effects of stress”

 

 

25.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):

 

A)

combines the ability to produce a detailed image of the brain's structures with the capacity to track the brain's activity and functioning.

 

B)

involves injecting the participant with a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, that is tracked as it is used in different brain regions.

 

C)

is limited because the participant cannot be repeatedly scanned.

 

D)

produces brain images that are not as sharp as and are much less detailed than those produced by PET scans.

 

 

26.

The development of techniques such as PET, MRI, and fMRI scans to study the structure and function of the brain has enhanced the work of psychologists in the _____ perspective of psychology.

 

A)

behavioral

 

B)

biological

 

C)

psychodynamic

 

D)

humanistic

 

 

27.

The results of Crum and Langer's hotel experiment:

 

A)

were contradicted by the results of correlational research based on a student survey about health, diet, and exercise and personality measures.

 

B)

had little impact because the statistical analysis was flawed.

 

C)

provided additional support for the idea that people's beliefs and expectations can have a powerful influence.

 

D)

were discounted because the evidence was purely correlational.

 

 

28.

The specialty area in psychology that applies psychological principles and techniques to legal issues, such as the assessment and treatment of offenders, mental competency to stand trial, child custody, jury selection, and eyewitness testimony is called psychology.

 

A)

clinical

 

B)

rehabilitation

 

C)

counseling

 

D)

forensic

 

 

29.

Which of the following statements about clinical psychologists is FALSE?

 

A)

They have extensive training in evaluating and diagnosing psychological disorders, psychotherapy techniques, and psychological testing.

 

B)

They study the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of different types of behavioral and emotional disorders, such as anxiety, mood, or eating disorders.

 

C)

Their training leads to a doctorate in clinical psychology, either a Ph.D. or a Psy.D.

 

D)

As a regular part of their training, they are supervised in prescribing medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other medical procedures.

 

 

30.

Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological processes are subject to the principle of:

 

A)

social loafing.

 

B)

unconscious conflict.

 

C)

collectivism.

 

D)

natural selection.

 

 

NAMES Only From
Chapter 1

 

 

1.

Which famous Greek philosopher wrote extensively about psychological topics such as sleep and dreaming, the senses, memory, and learning?

 

A)

Aristotle

 

B)

Descartes

 

C)

Calkins

 

D)

James

 

 

2.

French philosopher René Descartes:

 

A)

strongly opposed the idea of establishing psychology as a separate science.

 

B)

promoted a doctrine called interactive dualism.

 

C)

was the first of Wundt's students to receive a doctorate in psychology.

 

D)

was a philosopher who wrote extensively about topics such as sleep, dreams, the senses, and memory more than 2,000 years ago.

 

 

3.

Wilhelm Wundt outlined the connections between physiology and psychology in:

 

A)

his famous textbook titled Principles of Physiological Psychology, published in 1874.

 

B)

a series of famous lectures at Clark University in 1909.

 

C)

a public debate with William James at Harvard University.

 

D)

his famous book Principles of Psychology, published in two volumes in 1890.

 

 

4.

_____ opened the first psychology laboratory in _____.

 

A)

Sigmund Freud; 1904

 

B)

William James; 1890

 

C)

Edward B. Titchener; 1892

 

D)

Wilhelm Wundt; 1879

 

 

5.

More so than any other male psychologist at that time, _____ helped female students attain their psychology doctorate in his graduate program at Cornell University.

 

A)

G. Stanley Hall

 

B)

Francis C. Sumner

 

C)

William James

 

D)

Edward Titchener

 

 

6.

_____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____.

 

A)

Charles Darwin; 1859

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn; 1908

 

C)

William James; 1890

 

D)

Sigmund Freud; 1909

 

 

7.

Which of the following people played a key role in establishing psychology as a scientific discipline in the United States?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

Sigmund Freud

 

C)

B. F. Skinner

 

D)

Abraham Maslow

 

 

8.

It took more than ten years to write and was 1,400 pages long when it was published. Who wrote the landmark textbook Principles of Psychology?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn

 

C)

B. F. Skinner

 

D)

William James

 

 

9.

Who was the first person to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States?

 

A)

B. F. Skinner

 

B)

John B. Watson

 

C)

Francis C. Sumner

 

D)

G. Stanley Hall

 

 

10.

Which of the following psychologists founded the American Psychological Association and established the first journal devoted to psychology in the United States?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

G. Stanley Hall

 

C)

John B. Watson

 

D)

Mary Whiton Calkins

 

 

11.

The first U.S. woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology was:

 

A)

Mary Whiton Calkins.

 

B)

Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

C)

Renee Descartes.

 

D)

Francis C. Sumner.

 

 

12.

The first African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States was:

 

A)

Francis C. Sumner.

 

B)

Abraham Maslow.

 

C)

G. Stanley Hall.

 

D)

Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

 

13.

The founder of psychoanalysis was:

 

A)

American psychologist B. F. Skinner.

 

B)

American psychologist Carl Rogers.

 

C)

German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt.

 

D)

Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.

 

 

14.

Who would have been most likely to say: “You behave the way you do because of unconscious reasons, not reasons in your consciousness”?

 

A)

William James

 

B)

John B. Watson

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

G. Stanley Hall

 

 

15.

After attending a series of lectures by Freud at Clark University in 1909, _____ described Freud as “a man obsessed with fixed ideas.”

 

A)

Francis C. Sumner

 

B)

G. Stanley Hall

 

C)

Mary Whiton Calkins

 

D)

William James

 

 

16.

Sigmund Freud:

 

A)

refused to visit the United States but lectured extensively at universities throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.

 

B)

trained Carl Rogers in the use of scientific methods to study the unconscious mind.

 

C)

promoted the importance of the nature versus nurture issue and interactive dualism in understanding human behavior.

 

D)

delivered a series of lectures on psychoanalysis at Clark University in Massachusetts in the early 1900s.

 

 

17.

The founder of behaviorism was:

 

A)

G. Stanley Hall.

 

B)

William James.

 

C)

John Watson.

 

D)

Carl Rogers.

 

 

18.

Which of the following people strongly objected to structuralism's use of introspection and its emphasis on conscious mental processes?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Edward B. Titchener

 

C)

Margaret Floy Washburn

 

D)

Sigmund Freud

 

 

19.

Who conditioned dogs to reflexively salivate to the sound of a bell rather than food?

 

A)

American psychologist Margaret Washburn

 

B)

Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov

 

C)

Austrian physician Sigmund Freud

 

D)

American psychologist B. F. Skinner

 

 

20.

Key figures in the development of behaviorism include:

 

A)

Wundt, Titchener, and James.

 

B)

James, Watson, and Calkins.

 

C)

Maslow, Freud, and Rogers.

 

D)

Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner.

 

 

21.

Two key figures in the development of humanistic psychology include:

 

A)

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

 

B)

Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner.

 

C)

Mary Calkins and Margaret Floy Washburn.

 

D)

John Watson and B. F. Skinner.

 

 

22.

Which of the following people developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth?

 

A)

John B. Watson

 

B)

Abraham Maslow

 

C)

G. Stanley Hall

 

D)

Ivan Pavlov

 

 

23.

Which of the following people emphasized conscious experiences and each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction?

 

A)

Carl Rogers

 

B)

B. F. Skinner

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

John B. Watson

 

The following questions are NOT taken from materials provided by our textbook, but are generally considered to be basic and elementary questions that every Introduction to Psychology student should be able to correctly answer at the conclusion of the course. These questions may be included on the final exam. You must ascertain the answers to these questions on your own.

 

 

1.

Data obtained through naturalistic observation can be most useful to ______ behavior.

 

A)

modify.

 

B)

describe.

 

C)

predict.

 

D)

control.

 

 

2.

A research assistant is assigned the task of watching and recording the interactions between members of a Koala family on an Australian plantation.  This research is known as:

 

A)

Animal husbandry

 

B)

A quasi-experiment

 

C)

Introspection

 

D)

Naturalistic observation

 

 

3.

A researcher sets out to test her idea that adolescents are more likely to smoke if they have parents who smoke. This statement is an example of:

 

A)

A theory

 

B)

An operational definition

 

C)

A hypothesis

 

D)

Experimenter bias

 

 

4.

In general, critical thinking refers to the practice of:

 

A)

Criticizing other people.

 

B)

Assuming that new ideas are wrong until proven otherwise.

 

C)

Actively questioning statements rather than blindly accepting them.

 

D)

Using personal opinions to form conclusions.

 

 

5.

Before participating in a research study all participants must:

 

A)

Provide informed consent.

 

B)

Study for the test.

 

C)

Be a citizen of the US.

 

D)

There are no guidelines.

 

 

6.

An operational definition of a variable must be:

 

A)

Precise.

 

B)

Objective.

 

C)

Measurable.

 

D)

All of the above.

 

 

7.

A representative sample in a research study is best defined as:

 

A)

The total population.

 

B)

A selected group of participants that mirror the larger population.

 

C)

People who do not participate in the study.

 

D)

The experimenters who run the study.

 

 

8.

Political polls used to predict election outcomes usw which of the following research methods?

 

A)

Naturalistic observation.

 

B)

Survey method.

 

C)

Placebo effect.

 

D)

Experiment in a well controlled environment.

 

 

9.

When subjects in an experiment are chosen so that each has an equal chance of being in either the experimental group or the control group, we say the subjects have been assigned _____________.

 

A)

Alternatively.

 

B)

Hypothetically.

 

C)

Randomly.

 

D)

None of the above.

 

 

10.

If someone plans to administer a survey to determine which event people think is the most important one of the 20th century, the person who administers the survey should definitely:

 

A)

Administer the survey to a random sample or representative sample of the population.

 

B)

Invite everyone who wants to answer the questions to be part of the survey.

 

C)

Put the survey on the internet to make it easy for large numbers of people to answer.

 

D)

Give people a few suggestions of possible answers.

 

 

11.

In which one of the following examples would a case study be most appropriate?

 

A)

Studying depression in adolescents who live in the suburbs.

 

B)

Studying a rare genetic disorder that affects one’s psychological functioning.

 

C)

Studying whether a new medication works as well as its creators claim.

 

D)

Studying whether support groups are worthy of time and money spent on them.

 

 

12.

The control group in an experiment is the group in which the participants:

 

A)

Receive no treatment.

 

B)

Receive the active treatment.

 

C)

Are always male.

 

D)

All of the above.

 

 

13.

A placebo is defined as:

 

A)

A methamphetamine pill that is used to fool subjects into thinking it is a drug.

 

B)

An inactive substance or fake treatment which is used as a control technique.

 

C)

The location where an experiment is conducted.

 

D)

None of the above.

 

 

14.

The independent variable is __________ whereas the dependent variable is ______________.

 

A)

The variable that the experimenter changes around; the variable that is measured in the end.

 

B)

The variable that is measured in the end; the variable that the experimenter changes around.

 

C)

Is sometimes referred to the treatment; the variable that the experimenter manipulates.

 

D)

The variable that is measured in the end; sometimes referred to the treatment.

 

 

15.

Cause and effect relationships can only be determined by:

 

A)

Experimental research.

 

B)

A hypothesis.

 

C)

Introspection.

 

D)

All of the above.

 

 

 

16.

Empirical evidence refers to evidence that is the result of:

 

A)

Observation, measurement and experimentation.

 

B)

Intuition, logic and critical thinking.

 

C)

Education and informed opinion.

 

D)

Logic, statistics and scientific formulae.

 

 

17.

Psychology:

 

A)

Is a collection of theories that have yet to be tested.

 

B)

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

 

C)

Consists solely of various forms of therapy.

 

D)

Is the study of common sense in individuals.

 

 

18.

A ________________ is a testable prediction about the conditions under which a particular behavior or mental processes may occur, whereas a ______ is a general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of facts are related.

 

A)

Case study; theory.

 

B)

Hypothesis; study.

 

C)

Variable; case study.

 

D)

Hypothesis; theory.

 

 

19.

Which of the following questions could be successfully examined using the scientific method?

 

A)

Does heaven really exist?

 

B)

Would John F. Kennedy have been re-elected if he were not assassinated in his first term?

 

C)

Are male reactions times faster than female reaction times?

 

D)

Which is more powerful, the id or the ego?

 

 

20.

The theoretical orientation in psychology which emphasizes observable relationships between stimulus events and responses is ________________.

 

A)

Structuralsim.

 

B)

Psychoanalysis.

 

C)

Behaviorism.

 

D)

Humanism.

 

 

21.

Whose name is most closely associated with operant behaviorism?

 

A)

Sigmund Freud.

 

B)

B.F. Skinner

 

C)

Abraham Maslow.

 

D)

Jean Piaget.

 

 

 

 

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