Comer (7) Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

Practice Questions


The following questions have been selected from the author’s test bank for Abnormal Psychology. Every question on the midterm exam or the final exam concerning this chapter will be selected from the following list.


NOTE: The number in parentheses before the question is the page number in the textbook where the answer can be found.  If you wish to have the key for this set of questions send me an e-mail with your proposed answers in accordance with the schedule provided under the heading “To Obtain Answer Keys” on this web site.  Be sure to specify the chapter number for which you are seeking the key. I will send you the key in response.



1. (2) One who systematically gathers information in order to describe, predict, and explain abnormality is a clinical:

A)  mentalist

B)  legalist

C)  scientist

D)  practitioner



2. (2) R. D. Laing said, “Insanity—a perfectly rational adjustment to an insane world.” This statement illustrates:

A)  how dangerous most mentally ill people actually are

B)  that abnormality is situational

C)  that everyone is a little eccentric

D)  that drug use causes people to become mentally ill



3. (3) Behavior that violates legal norms is:

A)  deviant and criminal

B)  distressful and criminal

C)  deviant and psychopathological

D)  distressful and psychopathological



4. (3) Which of the following depressed people would be the least likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder—because of specific circumstances?

A)  someone whose mother was depressed

B)  someone whose community was destroyed by a tornado

C)  someone who was experiencing a chemical brain imbalance

D)  someone who was also an alcoholic



5. (3) Panic, anxiety, and depression were common among those who lived in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina. Why were these behaviors NOT considered deviant?

A)  These behaviors are valued in our culture

B)  These behaviors were the result of the circumstances

C)  These behaviors were considered deviant in the past, but not now

D)  These behaviors are not illegal



6. (4) People who engage in frenetic, manic activity may not experience distress. They are:

A)  nevertheless considered to be abnormal

B)  not abnormal because abnormality requires distress

C)  doing something illegal, not abnormal

D)  no longer considered abnormal, but were in the past



7. (4) Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?

A)  distress

B)  deviance

C)  dysfunction

D)  danger to self or others



8. (4) Which of the following examples would NOT be considered abnormal, despite the fact that it is dysfunctional?

A)  someone who is too confused to drive safely

B)  someone who parties so much that he or she cannot go to class

C)  someone who goes on a hunger strike to protest social injustice

D)  someone who cannot stay alone for even one night



9. (4) Research shows that danger to self or others is found in:

A)  all cases of abnormal functioning

B)  most cases of abnormal functioning

C)  some cases of abnormal functioning

D)  no cases of abnormal functioning



10. (4) Despite popular misconceptions, most people with psychological problems are not:

A)  dysfunctional

B)  dangerous

C)  distressing

D)  deviant



11. (5) According to Thomas Szasz's views, the deviations that some call mental illness are really:

A)  mental illnesses

B)  problems in living

C)  caused by one's early childhood experiences

D)  eccentric behaviors with a biological cause



12. (5) Defining abnormal behavior using “the four Ds”:

A)  allows us create diagnoses that are clear-cut and not debatable

B)  allows us to eliminate those who are merely eccentric

C)  allows us to include those who experience no distress

D)  is still often vague and subjective




13. (6) Clinical theorist Jerome Frank would say that all forms of therapy include all of the following except a:

A)  series of contacts

B)  healer

C)  third-party payer

D)  sufferer who seeks relief



14. (6) One who sees abnormality as a problem in living usually refers to those seeking help with their problems in living as:

A)  pupils

B)  patients

C)  trainees

D)  clients



15. (6) Several researchers have shown that in a typical year in the United States about what percentage of adults show disturbances severe enough to need clinical treatment?

A)  less than 1%

B)  5-10%

C)  10-15%

D)  more than 15%



16. (6) Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the incidence of psychological abnormality, historically and worldwide?

A)  It appears in all cultures during all time periods

B)  It appears in all cultures, but only during occasional time periods

C)  It appears in only some cultures, but during all time periods in those cultures

D)  It appears in only some cultures, and only occasionally in those cultures



17. (7) Which one of the following descriptors is NOT characteristic of an eccentric?

A)  a thought disorder

B)  being a bad speller

C)  not being married

D)  being creative



18. (7) The view that abnormal behavior resulted from some magical force is most consistent with views held:

A)  today

B)  by scientists

C)  by ancient peoples

D)  by somatogenics



19. (8) The practice of trephination was probably used to:

A)  remove a part of the brain

B)  relieve pressure on the brain

C)  allow the release of evil spirits

D)  restore the balance among the four humors



20. (8) The use of exorcism suggests a belief that what we call mental illness was caused by:

A)  germs

B)  poisons

C)  evil spirits

D)  psychological trauma



21. (8) If you were being treated by a shaman, you would most likely be undergoing:

A)  psychoanalysis

B)  gender-sensitive therapy

C)  community-based treatment

D)  an exorcism



22. (8) Hippocrates believed that treatment for mental disorders should involve:

A)  releasing evil spirits trapped in the brain

B)  bringing the four body humors back into balance

C)  punishing the body for its sins

D)  bloodletting



23. (8) Greek and Roman physicians described a person with mania as having symptoms of:

A)  paranoia and aggression

B)  euphoria and frenzied activity

C)  heightened perception of surroundings

D)  inflexible and maladaptive personality traits



24. (8) Bob experiences unshakable sadness. His friends have given up trying to cheer him up because nothing works. An ancient Greek physician would have labeled his condition:

A)  mania

B)  hysteria

C)  delusional

D)  melancholia



25. (8) Hippocrates's contribution to the development of our understanding of mental illness was the view that such conditions were the result of:

A)  stress

B)  natural causes

C)  brain pathology

D)  spiritual deviations



26. (9) Which of the following “new diagnoses” would one experiencing overwhelming concern about being bombarded with an excessive information on the Internet most likely receive?

A)  eco-anxiety

B)  terrorism terror

C)  crime phobia

D)  cyber fear



27. (9) Which of the following “new diagnoses” would someone experiencing overwhelming concern about where the safest neighborhoods and schools are most likely receive?

A)  eco-anxiety

B)  terrorism terror

C)  crime phobia

D)  cyber fear



28. (10) “Abnormal behavior is a symptom of disease, and once the disease is cured, the abnormality will cease.” Who would agree most strongly with this statement?

A)  St. Vitus

B)  Hippocrates

C)  demonologists

D)  clergy of the Middle Ages



29. (10) “What this person needs to be rid of abnormal behavior is a quiet life, a vegetarian diet, exercise, and celibacy.” Who would agree most strongly with this statement?

A)  clergy of the Middle Ages

B)  ancient Roman physicians

C)  Henry VIII

D)  von Krafft-Ebing



30.(10)  What model of mental illness did most people hold during the Middle Ages?

A)  the moral model

B)  the medical model

C)  the psychogenic model

D)  the demonology model



31. (10) Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of:

A)  exorcism

B)  mass madness

C)  physical pathology causing mental illness

D)  disorders that were treated with trephination



32. (10) St. Vitus's dance, characterized by people suddenly going into convulsions, jumping around, and dancing, was also known as:

A)  lycanthropy

B)  melancholia

C)  phlegmatism

D)  tarantism



33.(11)  The first physician to specialize in mental illness was:

A)  Johann Weyer

B)  William Tuke

C)  Benjamin Rush

D)  Sigmund Freud



34. (11) Johann Weyer, considered to be the founder of the modern study of psychopathology, was a physician in the:

A)  1200s

B)  1500s

C)  1700s

D)  1800s



35. (11) In many areas, asylums of the 1500s, such as Bethlehem asylum in London, became:

A)  shrines

B)  tourist attractions

C)  sheltered workshops

D)  centers of moral treatment



36. (11) Treatment for mental illness in crowded asylums tended to be:

A)  moral therapy.

B)  harsh and cruel.

C)  religiously based.

D)  psychogenic therapy.



37. (12) What is the distinction of Bethlehem Hospital, founded in London in 1547?

A)  Popularly called “Bedlam,” it came to represent deplorable conditions for patients

B)  It was the first asylum

C)  It was founded by Henry VIII as a place to house his numerous ex-wives

D)  It was the first asylum where the moral treatment of patients was practice.



38. (13) Male mental patients in the early 1800s probably would have chosen to be institutionalized in:

A)  Bethlehem Hospital, London

B)  Lunatics' Tower, Vienna

C)  La Bicêtre, Paris

D)  Val d'Isère, France



39. (13) The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that:

A)  mental problems had a biological basis

B)  demonology was a cause of mental illness

C)  mental illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness

D)  the cause of mental illness was immoral behavior



40. (13) The man who brought about the reforms of moral therapy to northern England was:

A)  John Dix

B)  Joseph Gall

C)  William Tuke

D)  Benjamin Rush



41. (13) The man who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the United States was:

A)  John Dix

B)  Joseph Gall

C)  William Tuk.

D)  Benjamin Rush



42. (13) “'Moral treatment' is the best way to deal with abnormality; even the best of us at some time may break under stress.” Who of the following would agree most strongly with this statement?

A)  Henry VIII

B)  Emil Kraepelin

C)  Philippe Pinel

D)  Friedrich Anton Mesmer



43. (13) The “parent” of American psychiatry, who organized the first course in psychiatry in America, is:

A)  Dorothea Dix

B)  Benjamin Rush

C)  William Tuke

D)  Sigmund Freud



44. (13) The American schoolteacher who lobbied state legislatures for laws to mandate human treatment of people with mental disorders was:

A)  William Tuke

B)  Dorothea Dix

C)  Clifford Beers

D)  Benjamin Rush



45. (13) Which of the following is part of the legacy of Dorothea Dix?

A)  deinstitutionalization

B)  state mental hospitals

C)  federal prisons

D)  privatization of mental hospitals



46. (13) All of the following were advocates of “moral treatment” except for:

A)  Dorothea Dix

B)  Benjamin Rush

C)  William Tuke

D)  Sigmund Freud


47. (14) The “moral treatment” movement rapidly declined in the late nineteenth century because:

A)  prejudice against those with mental disorders decreased

B)  fewer and fewer immigrants were being sent to mental hospitals

C)  all patients needing treatment had been helped

D)  hospitals became underfunded and overcrowded



48. (14) Another term for a cluster of symptoms is:

A)  syndrome

B)  somatogenesis

C)  psychogenesis

D)  general paresis



49. (14) The discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis was made by:

A)  Benjamin Rush

B)  Emil Kraepelin

C)  Fritz Schaudinn

D)  Richard von Krafft-Ebing



50. (14) The finding that syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea that:

A)  mental patients should be deinstitutionalized

B)  organic factors can cause mental illness

C)  antibiotics cannot “cure” viral diseases

D)  physicians should be the ones treating mental illnesses



51. (15) The German researcher who argued that physical factors may cause mental dysfunction, and who developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behaviors, was:

A)  Richard von Krafft-Ebing

B)  Friedrich Anton Mesmer

C)  Emil Kraepelin

D)  Fritz Schaudinn



52. (15) The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to have been the most successful was the use of:

A)  psychosurgery

B)  psychoanalysis

C)  various medications

D)  insulin shock therapy



53. (15) Mesmer became famous—or infamous—for his work with patients suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients' disorders are termed:

A)  somatogenic

B)  hysterical

C)  phlegmatic

D)  bilious



54. (16) Which point of view was supported by the discovery that the symptoms of hysteria (e.g., mysterious paralysis) could be induced by hypnosis?

A)  psychogenic

B)  somatogenic

C)  demonological

D)  psychoanalytic



55.(16)  The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was:

A)  prayer

B)  bleeding

C)  hypnotism

D)  trephining



56. (16) Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:

A)  moral therapy

B)  psychoanalysis

C)  psychogenic therapy

D)  all psychological therapy.



57. (16) Psychoanalysis is a form of:

A)  moral therapy

B)  outpatient therapy

C)  behavioral therapy

D)  somatogenic therapy



58. (16) Psychoanalysis, as Freud developed it, was a form of what we now would call:

A)  Mesmerism

B)  outpatient therapy

C)  community psychology

D)  Kraepelinism



59. (16) Psychoanalysis is NOT very effective for hospitalized mental patients because:

A)  there is not enough time for long-term therapy

B)  the ratio of caretaker to patient is too high

C)  patients lack the necessary insight and verbal skills

D)  there are not enough patients to form meaningful therapy groups.



60. (16) Regarding the cause of mental disorders, more people today believe that mental illness is caused by which of the following?

A)  sinful behavior

B)  lack of willpower

C)  lack of self-discipline

D)  something the person brought on him or herself



61. (17) Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed:

A)  antidepressants

B)  antiolytics

C)  antihypochondriacals

D)  antipsychotics



62. (17) Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:

A)  psychedelics

B)  antineurotics

C)  psychotropics

D)  psychophysiologicals



63. (17) If your primary symptom were excessive worry, the psychotropic drug for you would be an:

A)  antipsychotic

B)  antidepressant

C)  antiemetic

D)  antianxiety medication



64. (17) The policy of deinstitutionalization forces attention to:

A)  group psychotherapy

B)  private psychotherapy

C)  outpatient psychological services

D)  the conditions in psychiatric facilities



65. (17) People who are not impaired enough to need confinement in a mental hospital but who cannot live on their own sometimes live in supervised homes. This sort of facility is part of:

A)  deinstitutionalization

B)  private psychotherapy

C)  the social welfare approach

D)  the community mental health approach



66. (17) In 1955, 600,000 people were in public mental health institutions in the United States. Since 1955, the number of institutionalized persons has:

A)  doubled

B)  stayed about the same

C)  decreased by about 50 percent

D)  decreased by about 90 percent



67. (17) One cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the:

A)  policy of deinstitutionalization

B)  use of psychotropic medication

C)  decrease in the use of private psychotherapy

D)  move to the community mental health approach



68. (17-18) In the United States today, one is most likely to find a severely ill mental patient:

A)  in a mental hospital

B)  on the street or in jail

C)  receiving drug counseling in a shelter

D)  in private therapy paid for by the state



69. (18) Surveys suggest that about what proportion of adults in the United States receive psychological therapy in a typical year?

A)  1/100

B)  1/15

C)  1/5

D)  1/1000



70. (18) The fact that hundreds of thousands of people with severe psychological disturbances end up living on the streets or in jails points out one deficiency of:

A)  private psychotherapy

B)  deinstitutionalization

C)  managed care programs

D)  forms of group therapy